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  • Exploring the Power of the Jigsaw Cooperative Learning Method: Unlocking Academic Success

    The jigsaw teaching strategy is a cooperative learning technique developed by Elliot Aronson and his colleagues in the 1970s. The Jigsaw strategy is designed to promote student cooperation and communication by requiring them to work together to master a particular subject or topic. Evidence suggests that several facets of education can benefit from cooperative learning strategies, most notably the Jigsaw method.  Research has demonstrated that students' mathematical self-efficacy, mathematical connection ability, learning outcomes, interest in subjects, and academic achievement can be improved through the implementation of Jigsaw cooperative learning. These results provide more evidence that Jigsaw method is beneficial for students across all grade levels and subjects. Better learning outcomes are the result of increased student engagement, active learning, and collaboration. Teachers can greatly benefit their students' learning experiences and outcomes by implementing Jigsaw cooperative learning into their lesson plans. A. Regular Jigsaw Step 1: Preparation of information or material for learning. The teacher prepares the information or materials to be studied. The information to be studied is divided into four parts. It is supposed that each cooperative group has four members. The material is labeled: #1, #2, #3, #4 In each cooperative group of four members, everyone is assigned one part of the information. Step 2: Individual students work on their assigned material. Each student reads their information. The student decides on the necessary details from the material. Step 3: Students teach. The student decides the best way to teach the information to his group members. The student has up to 2 minutes to share what they learned from the material. Step 3: Assessment Here, the teacher decides how to assess the student's learning. The teacher can ask questions or use any other forms of assessment. B. Group Jigsaw Step 1: Preparation of information or material for learning The teacher divides the information to be learned into several organized cooperative groups. The teacher labels the material. At this level, the material or information to be studied is numbered according to the number of organized groups: Groups 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and so forth. Each cooperative group is assigned one part of the information. Step 2: Cooperative groups work Each cooperative group reads their material/information. The members of the cooperative group decide on 3 to 5 important details to pick from the information they have. The cooperative group decides the best way to present the information to the class. Step 3: The cooperative groups teach Each cooperative group is assigned time to present the information to the class. All members of the group are expected to participate in the presentation. Step 4: Assessment The teacher decides the best way to assess the student’s learning. He can ask questions or use any other forms of assessment. C. Expert Jigsaw Step 1: Preparation of the information The teacher prepares the information to be studied. The teacher divides the information into four equal parts. The teacher labels the four parts: #1, #2, #3, #4 Step 2: Distribution of the material In each cooperative group, everyone is assigned one part of the information. In this case, each cooperative group has four members. Individuals read their information and summarize it. Step 3: Formation of Expert Groups At this level, students form expert groups. Individuals from different cooperative groups with the same material label form an Expert Group. Example: all individuals who have received material #1, leave their cooperative groups and come together to form Expert Group #1, those with material labeled #2 form Expert Group #2, those with material labeled #3 form Expert Group #3, and those with material labeled #4 form Expert Group #4. Step 4: Expert groups work The members of the expert group read the information they have. The expert group members decide on 3 to 5 essential points to learn from the material. The expert group members decide on the best way to teach this information to their home cooperative groups. Step 5: Experts teaching At this stage, students return to their home cooperative groups. Each student is given a certain amount of time to present his information to his home cooperative group members. Step 6: Assessment The teacher decides the best way to assess the student’s learning. The teacher can ask questions or use any other forms of assessment. References Abobaker, R. M., Sulaiman Alamri, M., Jamaan Alshaery, B., & Hamdan-Mansour, A. M. (2023). Impact of Jigsaw Cooperative Learning Strategy on academic achievement and opinion among Nursing Students. Journal of Holistic Nursing and Midwifery, 33(1), 43–51. Aronson, E., & Bridgeman, D. (1979). Jigsaw Groups and the Desegregated Classroom: In Pursuit of Common Goals. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 5(4), 438–446. Johnson, F. O., Lawal, R. F., & Dada, F. H. (2023). Effect of Smartphone-Assisted Jigsaw Cooperative Learning on Students’ Mathematics Self-Efficacy. Brillo Journal, 2(2), 63–79. Nnamani, O., Hadebe‐Ndlovu, B. N., Okeke, C. I., & Ede, M. O. (2023). Effect of Jigsaw and Team Pair‐Solo cooperative learning strategies on interest in Basic Science of primary school children with visual impairment. Psychology in the Schools, 60(7), 2430–2446. Sihite, M. S. R., Huda, N., Harahap, I. H., Agustanti, A., & Andriati, N. (2023). The implementation of cooperative model’s jigsaw with react strategies to improve connection mathematic ability of students. Pendas : Jurnal Ilmiah Pendidikan Dasar, 8(1), 2020–2033. Thenu, D. M., Wambrauw, H. L., Budirianto, H. J., & Damopolii, I. (2022). Improving student learning outcomes through the use of Jigsaw learning. Inornatus: Biology Education Journal, 3(1), 24–31.

  • Cooperative Learning: Effective Teaching Method for Success

    December 18, 2023 1. Introduction During the past few decades, there has been an emergence of new instructional strategies. Cooperative Learning is one of the areas that has attracted more investigators. Cooperative Learning (CL) is an approach to instruction that involves small groups of students collaborating toward a shared goal. This strategy promotes active involvement, teamwork, and mutual assistance among group members. Cooperative Learning (CL) is one of the most successfully explored instructional strategies in the history of educational research. The CL Strategies promotes higher order thinking, socially acceptable behavior, and interracial acceptance. 2. Cooperative Learning Educators typically instruct in a manner that reflects the methodology they were taught, which often entails traditional lecture-based approaches. Nevertheless, a novel paradigm known as Cooperative Learning (CL) has emerged, offering a solution to the notion that the teacher is the sole knowledge repository. A lecture is typically an extensive presentation during which the instructor disseminates factual information in a structured and logically sequenced manner. This approach typically allocates significant time for the teacher’s presentation, as they are considered the primary source of knowledge. Numerous studies have been undertaken in the field of CL. The CL method is widely believed to be an effective teaching strategy when employed in the classroom. The advantages of cooperative learning extend beyond academic achievement to encompass accountability and social skills development. In contrast to traditional lecture-based teaching, CL involves using small groups for instructional purposes. By dividing students into smaller groups, this approach capitalizes on the collective potential of the students toward a shared goal. Students support one another in achieving their objectives through collaboration and information sharing. CL method recognizes that each individual possesses valuable knowledge and skills to contribute towards the success of the group and themselves. CL can be classified into three categories: formal, informal, and cooperative-based group learning. Given the significance of CL, achieving any project without collaboration and interaction with others is increasingly challenging. Therefore, CL is a crucial strategy in today’s era. It is important to note that learning is not done to a learner but rather an active process that the learner engages in. Consequently, learners play a pivotal role in their learning process. CL method users knowledge the learner as an active participant in their training rather than an “empty vessel.” The utilization of CL efforts leads to the realization among participants that the fate of the entire group is interconnected and that mutual advantage must be sought so that all group members can benefit from one another’s endeavors (your success contributes to my success, and vice versa). In this regard, the CL process is fostered by engaging individuals in social interactions to assist fellow members. This perspective highlights the significance of focusing cooperative activities on promoting the exchange of information and resources among learners. It is also worth noting that cooperative learning differs from competitive situations where classmates are often positioned as rivals. In their classes, educators regularly engage with learners who possess a diverse array of skills and abilities. To address this challenge, using small group settings can facilitate the integration of students from varied backgrounds into the learning process. Furthermore, in the classroom, students can establish a community of informed peers among their classmates. In essence, the collective sharing of knowledge among individuals holds greater potency, as no single person can achieve success independently. 3. Components of Cooperative Learning Cooperative learning is a teaching method that relies on several essential components to facilitate collaborative and interactive learning experiences. These components structure group interactions and foster a positive and productive learning environment. The main components of cooperative learning are as follows: Positive Interdependence: this context refers to a situation in which students recognize that their efforts contribute to the collective success of the entire group. By collaborating in small groups and supporting one another, they can maximize their learning outcomes and enhance their understanding of the subject matter. Face-to-face Promotive Interaction: Individuals facilitate each other’s success. Individual Accountability: Although students collaborate in groups, each member is evaluated, and their score is counted towards the group’s overall performance. This arrangement suggests that each person is accountable for their accomplishments as well as the collective success of the group. Interpersonal Skills: Cooperative learning groups necessitate that students acquire both academic subject matter and the interpersonal and small-group abilities necessary for effective team functioning. It is essential to note that the higher the level of teamwork skills among the members, the greater the quantity and quality of learning that can be achieved. In order to coordinate efforts to achieve mutual goals, students must (a) get to know and trust each other, (b) communicate accurately and unambiguously, (c) accept and support each other, and (d) resolve conflicts constructively. Group Processing: is defined as reflecting on a group session to (a) describe what member actions were helpful and unhelpful and (b) make decisions about what actions to continue or change. The objective of group processing is to enhance and refine the ability of group members to make valuable contributions towards the collective objective of achieving the group’s goals collaboratively. 4. Advantage of Cooperative Learning Cooperative learning strategies have numerous advantages and highly benefit students in various educational settings. By implementing these strategies, learners can reap the rewards of increased social interactions, peer learning, the development of transferable skills, and improved learning outcomes. Furthermore, cooperative learning encourages active learning and enhances self-esteem, promoting student socialization. CL has been linked to several positive outcomes in terms of socialization. Specifically, it has been shown to increase acceptance of academic teammates from diverse backgrounds and improve behavior. Additionally, cooperative learning has been associated with higher student achievement, more positive attitudes toward subjects, and improved student retention. Furthermore, this learning approach has been found to foster high achievement, knowledge retention, and critical thinking skills. In addition, CL has gained widespread acceptance as a powerful tool for both professional and academic success, yielding substantial benefits in the workplace. Also, it has the potential to foster collaboration between educational and organizational entities, resulting in mutually beneficial outcomes. Furthermore, research has demonstrated that cooperative learning, particularly in the hospitality and tourist industries, can aid students in developing an entrepreneurial mindset and a competitive edge. Moreover, its positive effects on students are widely recognized. 5. Conclusion Through promoting teamwork, communication, and critical thinking, CL strategies increase the educational experience and impart essential skills for lifelong learning and success in diverse personal and professional contexts. As educators continue their pursuit of progressive teaching methodologies, CL emerges as an effective instrument for cultivating a supportive and dynamic learning atmosphere. Indeed, the evidence supports the notion that CL offer many advantages for students, educators, and organizations, including improved learning outcomes, enhanced social skills, and competitive advantages. References Ahmad, Z., & Mahmood, N. (2010). Effects of Cooperative Learning vs. Traditional Instruction on Prospective Teachers’ Learning Experience and Achievement. Ankara Universitesi Egitim Bilimleri Fakultesi Dergisi, 43(1), 151–164. Barkley, E. F., Cross, K. P., & Major, C. H. (2005). Collaborative learning techniques: A handbook for college faculty (1st ed.). The Jossey-Bass higher and adult education series. Jossey-Bass. Beck, L. L., & Chizhik, A. W. (2008). An experimental study of cooperative learning in cs1. ACM SIGCSE Bulletin, 40(1), 205–209. Bruffee, K. A. (1995). Collaborative learning: Higher education, interdependence, and the authority of knowledge. John Hopkins University Press. Cohen, E. G. (1994). Restructuring the Classroom: Conditions for Productive Small Groups. Review of Educational Research, 64(1), 1–35. D'Allura, T. (2002). Enhancing the Social Interaction Skills of Preschoolers with Visual Impairments. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, 96(8), 576–584. Davison, L., Galbraith, I., & McQueen, M. (2008). Cooperative learning: a partnership between an EPS and a school. Educational Psychology in Practice, 24(4), 307–317. Fauziah, S. B., & Mahmudah, F. N. (2020). Strategies of science teachers in overcoming the factors that cause learning difficulties. International Journal of Educational Management and Innovation, 1(1), 39-49. Green, W. H., & Henriquez-Green, R. (2008). Basic moves of teaching: Building on cooperative learning. Trafford. Johnson, D. W., & Johnson, R. T. (1999). Learning together and alone: Cooperative, competitive, and individualistic learning. (5th ed.). Allyn and Bacon. Johnson, D. W., Johnson, R. T., & Holubec, E. J. (1994). The new circles of learning: Cooperation in the classroom and school. ASCD. Johnson, D. W., Smith, K. A., & Johnson, R. T. (1991). Active learning: Cooperation in the college classroom. Interaction Book. Johnson, D.W., Johnson, R.T., & Smith, K.A. (1991). Cooperative learning: increasing college faculty instructional productivity. ASHE-ERIC Higher Education Report No. 4. Washington, D.C.: The George Washington University, School of Education and Human Development. Retrieved from Katawazai, R., & Saidalvi, A. (2020). The Attitudes of Tertiary Level Students Towards Cooperative Learning Strategies in Afghan EFL Context. International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research, 19(9), 301–319. Kim, D. (2018). A study on the influence of Korean Middle School students’ relationship through Science class applying STAD cooperative learning. Journal of Technology and Science Education, 8(4), 291–309. Li, H. (2017). Networking for English Literature Class: Cooperative Learning in Chinese Context. English Language Teaching, 10(12), 219-229. Liu, C.-H., Horng, J.-S., Chou, S.-F., Zhang, S.-N., & Lin, J.-Y. (2023). Creating competitive advantage through entrepreneurial factors, collaboration and learning. Management Decision, 61(7), 1888–1911. Loh, R. C.-Y., & Ang, C.-S. (2020). Unravelling Cooperative Learning in Higher Education. Research in Social Sciences and Technology, 5(2), 22–39. Ogle, D.M. (1986). K-W-L: A Teaching Model That Develops Active Reading of Expository Text. The Reading Teacher, 39(6), 564-570. Rieber, L. J. (1992). The Role of Cooperative Writing in the Business Communication Classroom: a Research Direction for the1990s. The Bulletin of the Association for Business Communication, 55(2), 32–34. Salciuviene, L., Buenaventura, V. E. C., & Lee, K. (2019). Employee Proactiveness to Engage in Sustainable Consumption Leading to Societal Benefits. Engineering Economics, 30(1), 112–120. Samsilayurni, S., Sasongko, R. N., & Kristiawan, M. (2021). The Effect of Expository and Cooperative Learning Strategies on Student Learning Result in Class X Office Governance Automation of State Vocational High School I Palembang. Education Quarterly Reviews, 4(2). Slavin, R. E. (1996). Research on Cooperative Learning and Achievement: What We Know, What We Need to Know. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 21(1), 43–69.

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